Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, is a shockingly common condition, affecting as many as 10% of women in the US. Unfortunately, there is still relatively little known about it – as many as 50% of people who have it don’t know that they do. We do know that it is a condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. There is also an increased production of androgen and/or testosterone, all of which leads to the growth of several ovarian cysts (benign masses on the ovaries). Experts still don’t know exactly what causes it, but we do know a few key factors.